Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today, and علامات الحمل بولد; click through the up coming web page, why is this difference growing in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn’t strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than males, it isn’t clear how much each one contributes.

It is known that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can expect to live longer than her older brother.

The chart above shows that although the female advantage exists across all countries, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

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The advantage for women in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is now.

Let’s see how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men living in America are living longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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