Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live much longer than men today, and why has this advantage increased over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; However, we’re not sure what the contribution of each one of these factors is.
In spite of the amount, we can say that a large portion of the reason women live so much longer than men and not previously, has to do with the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brothers.
This graph shows that although women have an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.
In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity was not as great.
Let’s take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.
There is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small however, تزويد لايكات يوتيوب it has grown significantly with time.
It is possible to verify that the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.